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NEET BIOLOGY MCQ UNIT 9 BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS12 Bio Zoology Chapter 9 Part 3  Applications of Biotechnology One mark Q&A-2022

Stem Cell Banks

Stem Cell

106. _____is the extraction, processing and storage of stem cells, so that they may be used for treatment in the future, when required

Answer:Stem cell banking 

107. _________is a facility that stores stem cells derived from amniotic fluid for future use. 

Answer:Amniotic cell bank

108. _____are stored in banks specifically for use by the individual from whom such cells have been collected and the banking costs are paid. 

Answer:Stem cells

109. ______is the extraction of stem cells from the umbilical cord during childbirth.

Answer:Cord Blood Banking

110. ______are the most popular sources of stem cells.

Answer:The umbilical cord and cord blood 

111. Both quantity and quality wise rich sources of stem cells are ____

Answer:The placenta, amniotic sac and amniotic fluid

 Molecular Diagnostics

112.Which of the following are the conventional diagnostic methods to detect the disease are indirect and not always specific and early detection of the disease is not possible through them?

a. Microscopic examinations

b. Serum analysis

c. Urine analysis

d. All the above

Answer:All the above

113.Which of the following are disease diagnostic methods for reliable and help in early diagnosis?

a. Recombinant DNA technology

b. Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR) 

c.Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

d. All the above

Answer:All the above

114. Presence of pathogens like virus, bacteria, etc., is detected only when the pathogen produces ____in the patient. 

Answer:Symptoms 

115. When a patient with disease, by the time the symptoms appear ________

a. Concentration of pathogen becomes very high in the body

b. Concentration of pathogen becomes very low in the body

c. Concentration of pathogen becomes normal in the body

d. Concentration of pathogen become slow in the body

Answer: Concentration of pathogen becomes very high in the body

116. Full form of ELISA is______

Answer:Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay

117. ELISA is a biochemical procedure discovered by ___

Answer:Eva Engvall and Peter Perlmanin (1971)

118. ELISA is a biochemical procedure discovered by Eva Engvall and Peter Perlmanin at_____

Answer:1971

119.  ELISA is a biochemical procedure useful to detect the presence of specific antibodies or antigens in a sample of _____

Answer:Serum, urine, etc.,

120. ______ is a very important diagnostic tool to determine if a person is HIV positive or negative.

Answer:ELISA

121. ELISA is a tool for _____

a. Determining the serum antibody concentrations (such as the antibodies produced in a person infected by pathogens such as HIV) 

b. For detecting the presence of specific antigens 

c. For detecting the presence of hormones such as human chorionic gonadotropins

d. All the above

Answer: All the above

122. During diagnosis the sample suspected to contain the antigen is ____of an ELISA plate

Answer:Immobilised on the surface

123. ELISA is highly sensitive and can detect antigens in the range of _____

Answer:Nanogram

124.How many types of  ELISA are there?

Answer:Four kinds

125. Find the correct answer about the types of  ELISA 

a. Direct ELISA and Indirect ELISA, 

b. Sandwich ELISA and competitive ELISA 

c. Both a and b

d. None of the above

Answer:Both a and b

126. _____possesses the added advantages of not requiring radioisotopes or a radiation counting apparatus.

Answer:ELISA

PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)

127.The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)  is____ amplification technique used for synthesising multiple identical copies (billions) of DNA of interest. 

Answer: An invitro

128. Full form of PCR is ____

Answer:Polymerase Chain Reaction 

129. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)  technique was developed by____

Answer: Kary Mullis (Nobel laureate, 1993) in the year 1983 

130. The technique was developed by Kary Mullis (Nobel laureate, 1993) in the year ___

Answer:1983

131. ______,_____,____are the three steps involved in PCR 

Answer:Denaturation, renaturation or primer annealing and synthesis or primer extension

132. The double stranded DNA of interest is denatured to separate into two individual strands by high temperature . This is called ___

Answer:Denaturation

133. The primer template is used to synthesize DNA by using ____

Answer:Taq – DNA polymerase

134. In the PCR technique, during denaturation the reaction mixture is heated to ____for a short time to denature the target DNA into single strands that will act as a template for DNA synthesis. 

Answer:95⁰ C

135. In the PCR technique, during primer extension or synthesis the temperature of the mixture is increased to ____for a sufficient period of time to allow Taq DNA polymerase to extend each primer by copying the single stranded template.

Answer:75⁰ C 

136. The PCR technique is otherwise known as ___

Answer:DNA amplification

137. The PCR technique can also be used for amplifications of RNA in which case it is referred to as _____

Answer: Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR).

138. The full form of RT-PCR is ___

Answer:Reverse transcription PCR 

139. During reverse transcription PCR process the RNA molecules (mRNA) must be converted to complementary DNA by _____

Answer:The enzyme reverse transcriptase

140. Which of the following will serve as the template for PCR technique?

Answer:The cDNA 

PCR In Clinical Diagnosis

141. The specificity and sensitivity of PCR is useful for the diagnosis of ,, 

a. Inherited disorders (genetic diseases) 

b. Viral diseases

c. Bacterial diseases

d. All the above

Answer: All the above

142. PCR is useful for the diagnosis of specimens like

a. Blood 

b. Stool

c. Spinal fluid, or sputum

d. All the above

Answer: All the above 

143. PCR is employed in the prenatal diagnosis of inherited diseases by using ___

a. Chorionic villi samples or cells from amniocentesis

b. Cells from amniocentesis

c. Chorionic villi samples or cells from amniocentesis

d. None of the above

Answer: Chorionic villi samples or cells from amniocentesis

144. Which of the following disease(s) is/are  can be detected by PCR?

a. Sickle cell anaemia, β-thalassemia and Phenylketonuria

b. Sex-linked disorders in fertilized embryos 

c. Several virally induced cancers, like cervical cancer caused by Papillomavirus 

d. All the above

Answer: All the above 

145. cDNA from PCR is a valuable tool for diagnosis and monitoring retroviral infections e.g., Tuberculosis by 

Answer:Mycobacterium tuberculosis

146. Sex of human beings and live stocks, embryos fertilized invitro can be determined by PCR by using 

a. Primers 

b. DNA probes specific for sex chromosomes

c. Primers and DNA probes specific for sex chromosomes

d. None of the above

Answer: Primers and DNA probes specific for sex chromosomes

Applications of PCR

147. As a technique which can amplify even minute quantities of DNA from any source, like ___

a. Hair, mummified tissues, 

b. Bones 

c. Any fossilised materials

d. All the above

Answer: All the above 

148. PCR technique can be used in 

a. The field of forensic medicine (an important tool in forensic science for identification of criminals)

b. The study of evolutions, more specifically phylogenetics

c. Amplification of specific DNA segment to be used in gene therapy

d. All the above

Answer: All the above

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