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NEET BIOLOGY MCQ UNIT 9 BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS12 Bio Zoology Chapter 9 Part 2 Applications of Biotechnology One mark Q&A-2022 Focus to success

Gene Therapy

57. The transfer of a normal gene into a person’s cells that carries one or more mutant alleles is known as ___

Answer:Gene therapy

58.The main thrust of gene therapy has been directed at correcting single gene mutations as in _____

Answer: Cystic fibrosis and haemophilia

 59. What are two strategies involved in gene therapy?

     Answer:  i. Gene augmentation

                    ii. Gene inhibition

60.Therapy which involves insertion of DNA into the genome to replace the missing gene product in gene therapy is known as ____

Answer:Gene augmentation

61. Therapy which involves insertion of the antisense gene which inhibits the expression of the dominant gene in gene therapy is known as ____

Answer:Gene inhibition

62. The two approaches to achieve gene therapy are 

         Answer:i.Somatic cell gene therapy

                      ii.  germ line gene therapy

63. ______involves the insertion of a fully functional and expressible gene into a target somatic cell to correct a genetic disease permanently 

Answer:Somatic cell gene therapy 

64. ______involves the introduction of DNA into germ cells which is passed on to the successive generations.

Answer:Germline gene therapy 

65. ________involves isolation of a specific gene and making its copies and inserting them into target cells to make the desired proteins.

Answer:Gene therapy

66. Therapeutic genes transferred into the somatic cells in______gene therapy

Answer:Somatic cell gene therapy 

67. Therapeutic genes transferred into the germ cells in___gene therapy

Answer:Germline gene therapy

68. Introduction of genes into bone marrow cells, blood cells, skin cells in____gene therapy

Answer:Somatic cell gene therapy 

69. Genes introduced into eggs and sperms in____gene therapy

Answer:Germline gene therapy

70. Therapeutic genes will not be inherited in later generations in____gene therapy

Answer:Somatic cell gene therapy 

71.Therapeutic genes will be heritable and passed on to later generations in____gene therapy

Answer:Germline gene therapy

72. The first clinical gene therapy was given in 1990 by ______to a four year old girl with adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency. 

Answer:French Anderson

73. ADA deficiency or SCID (Severe combined immunodeficiency) is an ____

Answer:Autosomal recessive metabolic disorder

74. SCID is caused by the deletion or dysfunction of the gene coding for _______

Answer:ADA enzyme

75. In SCID patients the nonfunctioning ———cannot elicit immune responses against invading pathogens. 

Answer:T-Lymphocytes

76. The right approach for SCID treatment would be to give the patient a ____which breaks down toxic biological products.

Answer:Functional ADA 

77. In some children ADA deficiency could be cured by_______, where defective immune cells could be replaced with healthy immune cells from a donor.

Answer: Bone marrow transplantation

78. In some patients it can be treated by enzyme replacement therapy, in which _____is injected into the patient.

Answer:Functional ADA

79. During gene therapy the ___from the blood of the patient are removed and grown in a nutrient culture medium.

Answer:Lymphocytes

80. The SCID disease could be cured permanently if the gene for ADA isolated from ____cells are introduced into the cells of the early embryonic stages.

Answer: Bone marrow 

Answer:Stem Cell Therapy

81`. ____are undifferentiated cells found in most of the multi cellular animals.

Answer:Stem cells

82. Stem cells maintained their ____state even after undergoing numerous mitotic divisions.

Answer:Undifferentiated

83. Stem cell research has the potential to revolutionize _____

Answer:The future of medicine with the ability to regenerate damaged and diseased organs

84. ___are capable of self renewal and exhibit ‘cellular potency’.

Answer:Stem cells

85. Stem cells can differentiate into all types of cells that are derived from ____

a. The germ layer endoderm 

B. The germ layer ectoderm

c. The germ layer mesoderm

d. Any of the three germ layers ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm

Answer:Any of the three germ layers ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm

.86. In mammals there are two main types of stem cells – 

          Answer:  i. Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) 

                         ii. Adult stem cells

87. _______are pluripotent and can produce the three primary germ layers ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.

Answer:Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) 

88. _____are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into a number of types of cells

Answer:Embryonic stem cells 

89. _______are isolated from the epiblast tissue of the inner cell mass of a blastocyst. 

Answer:Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) 

90. When stimulated ES can develop into ________types of the adult body.

Answer:More than 200 cell

91. _______ are immortal 

Answer:Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) 

92. _______ can proliferate in a sterile culture medium and maintain their undifferentiated state.

Answer:Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) 

93. _______are found in various tissues of children as well as adults.

Answer:Adult stem cells 

94. Adult stem cell otherwise known as____

Answer:Somatic stem cell 

95. _____can divide and create another cell similar to it.

Answer:Adult stem cell or somatic stem cell 

96. Most of the adult stem cells are multipotent and can act as,____.

a. A repair system of the body

b. Replenishing adult tissues

c. A repair system of the body and Replenishing adult tissues

d. None the above

Answer:A repair system of the body and Replenishing adult tissues

97. ______is a rich source of adult stem cells.

Answer:The red bone marrow 

98. ______could be used to test new drugs.

Answer:Human stem cells 

99. The most important and potential application of human stem cells is and 

a. The generation of cells

b. Tissues that could be used for cell based therapies

c. The generation of cells and tissues that could be used for cell based therapies

d. None the above

Answer:The generation of cells and tissues that could be used for cell based therapies

100.See the picture and answer it

aA-Stem cellB-Muscle cellC- RBCD- Nerve cell
bA-Muscle cellB-Stem cellC-RBCD-Nerve cell
cA-RBCB-Muscle cellC-Stem cellD-Nerve cell
dA-Nerve cellB-RBCC-Muscle cellD-Stem cell
AnsweraA-Stem cellB-Muscle cellC- RBCD- Nerve cell

101. ______is the ability of a single cell to divide and produce all of the differentiated cells in an organism.

Answer:Totipotency (Toti-total)

102. ______refers to a stem cell that has the potential to differentiate into any of the three germ layers-ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm.

Answer:Pluripotency (Pluri-several)

103. ______refers to the stem cells that can differentiate into various types of cells that are related. For example blood stem cells can differentiate into lymphocytes, monocytes , neutrophils etc.,

Answer:Multipotency (multi-Many) 

104. ________refers to stem cells that can differentiate into a few cell types. For example lymphoid or myeloid stem cells can differentiate into B and T cells but not RBC.

Answer: Oligopotency (Oligo-Few)

105. ______refers to the ability of the stem cells to differentiate into only one cell type.

Answer: Unipotency ( Uni- Single)

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NEET BIOLOGY MCQ UNIT 9 BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS12 Bio Zoology Chapter 9 Part 1-2022 Applications of Biotechnology One mark Q&A Focus on successNEET BIOLOGY MCQ UNIT 9 BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS12 Bio Zoology Chapter 9 Part 1-2022 Applications of Biotechnology One mark Q&A Focus on success

1. _______involves the manipulation of DNA and naturally occurring processes such as protein synthesis for a wide range of applications including the production of therapeutically important proteins Answer: Genetic engineering