BIOLOGY STUDY MATERIALS FOR NEET, TRB, TNPSC, UPSC, DEO AND OTHER COMPETETIVE EXAMS BRIEF OUTLINE OF CLASSIFICATION OF KINGDOM PLANTAE

 

KINGDOM PLANTAE

·         Eukaryotic, chlorophyllous, embryo forming (excluding algae) and cellulosic cell walled organisms.

·         They are producers in ecosystem.

·         Mostly non-motile, multicellular, photoautotrophic and stored food material is in the form of starch (sometimes fat as in seeds).

KINGDOM PLANTAE SUBDIVIDED INTO TWO SUB KINGDOMS

 I.CRYPTOGAMS: – (Greek. Cryptos-hidden, gamo-marriage)

·         Lower plants or seedless plants

·         Cryptogams are also called as sporophyte

·         The spores and gametes are not visible to the naked eye.

·         The plants are reproducing asexually by spores and sexually by gametes.

·         Cryptogams are do not bear flowers, fruits and seeds.

On the basis of the plant body the Cryptogams are further subdivided into

Three divisions

1. Thallophyta

·         Non-embryophytes and non-vascular plants.

·         Plant body is known as “thallus” Which is not divided into root, stem and leaves

·         Thallophyta is the largest division of cryptogams

·         Thallophyta is the first division of cryptogams

·         Thallophytes are mostly found in water.

·         Thallophytes may be Chlorophyllus or achlorophyllus

·         Thallophytes reproduce asexually by spores and sexually by isogamous, anisogamous and oogamous method.

·         Thallophytes are are subdivided into

             i. Algae

·         Algae are eukaryotic

·         Algae are non-vascular thallophytes

·         The branch of Botany which deals with the study of algae is termed as ‘Algology or Phycology’.

·         Carrageenan, extracted from seaweeds is used in cosmetics, boot polish, ice cream, paints, etc.

Examples: –

 Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra, Microspora, Botrydium, Amphipleura , Chrysosphaera, Pinnularia, Melosira, Peridinium , Glenodinium, Nostoc, Anabaena, Laminaria and Fucus.

Major Classes: –

a. Chlorophyceae

b. Xanthophyceae

c. Chrysophyceae

d.  Bacillariophyceae   

e.  Cryptophyceae

f. Dinophyceae

g. Chloromonadineae

h. Euglenophyceae

i. Phaeophyceae

j. Rhodophyceae

k. Myxophyceae

 

 ii. Fungi (It is discussed separately as separate kingdom Fungi)

                 iii. (Sometimes classified as) Bacteria (It is briefly discussed in Kingdom monera).

2. Bryophyta

·         Bryophytes are embryophytes without vascular tissues.

·         Bryophyta is the simplest and primitive group of land plants.

·         Bryophytes are autotrophic, non-seeded, cryptogamic plants.

·         Bryophytes are known as amphibians of plant kingdom.

Example: –

 Marchantia Riccia, Sphagnum, Funaria, Polytrichum and Anthoceros.

Major Classes:

a. Hepaticopsida (Liverworts)

b. Anthocerotopsida (Hornworts)

c. Bryopsida (Mosses)

 

3. Pteridophyta

 

·         Pteridophyta word derived from Latin word pteron–feather; phyton–plant.

·         Pteridophytes are seedless, vascular cryptogams.

·         Alternation of generations is found here, gametophyte is autotrophic and independent.

·         Some pteridophytes are used as biofertiliser (Azolla).

Examples: –

Dryopteris, Selaginella lepidophylla, Lycopodiumphlegmaria,Marsilea, Salvinia, Azolla, Gleichenia, Equisetum.

Major Classes:

a. Psilophyta

b. Lycophyta or Lepidophyta

c. Sphenophyta or Arthrophyta

d. Filicophyta or Pterophyta

II. PHANEROGAMS

 DIVISION: SPERMATOPHYTA (sperma -seed; phyton-plant)

·         The plant body is differenciated into root, stem, and leaves.

·         Vascular plants are advanced than Cryptogams.

·         Plants reproduce sexually by gametes

·         Fertilization is of siphonogamous type.

·         Siphonogamy is a condition in plants in which pollen tubes are developed for the transfer of the male cells to the eggs.

·         . The seed-plants are siphonogamous.

·         The life cycle is dominated by sporophytic generation.

 The spermatophyta is divided into two subdivisions.

 

1. Gymnospermae

Gymnospermae word derived from Latin word gymnos – naked; sperma – seed

Gymnosperms are naked seeded plants

Plants are sporophytic, differentiated into root, stem and leaves.

Gymnosperms reproduce by both vegetative and sexual methods.

Plants are always heterosporous.

Example: –

 Cycas, Zamia, Pinus, Cordaites, Gnetum and Ephedra

Major Classes: –

a. Cycadopsida

b. Coniferopsida

c. Gnetopsida

 

2. Angiospermae

Angiospermae word drived from Greek word Angion–vessel; sperma–seed

Angiosperms range from microscopic Wolffia to the largest tree such as Eucalyptus.

Angiosperms may be herb, shrub and trees.

Angiosperms are plants that bear fruits and flowers

 

Examples:

 Wolffia, Eucalyptus, Cuscuta, Santalum, Drosera, Utricularia, mustard and paddy

Major Classes: –

a. Dicotyledonae

 Sub classes; –

         i) Polypetalae

        ii) Gamopetalae

          iii) Monochlamydeae

b. Gymnospermae

  Sub classes: –

          i)  Cycadaceae

          ii)  Coniferae

          iii)  Gnetaceae

c.Monocotyledonae

 

Note: –

Remaining unit topics discussed in separately

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

One thought on “BIOLOGY STUDY MATERIALS FOR NEET, TRB, TNPSC, UPSC, DEO AND OTHER COMPETETIVE EXAMS BRIEF OUTLINE OF CLASSIFICATION OF KINGDOM PLANTAE

  • February 24, 2021 at 8:21 am
    Permalink

    Materials are very useful to all competitive exams.Thanks a lot.

    Reply

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

%d bloggers like this: